1     Nutrition ingredients

The human diet consists of different elements:

1.1 Carbohydrates

1.2 Proteins

1.3 Fat

1.4 Vitamins

1.5 Minerals

1.6 Fibres

1.7 Water


1.1  Carbohydrates

Food supplies carbohydrates in multiple form/profile. As there are

  • Monosaccharide (e.g. Glucose or Fructose)
  • Disaccharide (e.g. edible sugar, consisting of each one molecule Fructose and Glucose),
  • Oligosaccharide (e.g. maltodextrin) to the point of
  • Polysaccharide (e.g. starch containing in noodles, bread or potatoes).

Carbohydrates are of most importance for the body:

  • The brain can get its required energy solely from carbohydrates.
  • The athlete needs carbohydrates as direct source of energy in the muscle.
  • The fat burning can only work in the presence of carbohydrates.

Muscles and liver are the reservoirs for carbohydrates in the body. In particular the liver is in charge of providing the brain permanently and constantly with carbohydrates.

In case the carbohydrates are running short the blood glucose level goes down and will elicit hungry feeling.

In case the carbohydrate reservoirs will be completely discharged, one is talking about a bonk (Hypoglycemia).

Besides a considerably reduction of efficiency a Hypoglycemia can also cause indications like deficiency of concentration, dizziness, indisposition and missing motivation.

The athlete should absolutely avoid a Hypoglycemia. Besides the efficiency loss the down fall and risk of injury will considerably rise due to the deficiency of concentration.

Some athletes are doing exercises partially with fasting stomach resulting into a Hypoglycemia, in order to train the fat burning. One should strongly advise not to do it!

  • The down fall and risk of injury will be too high.
  • The fat burning cannot be executed effectively without carbohydrates.
  • Due to the power loss the training load will be so low under such conditions, that from the sport science point of view no training effective impulse will be activated.
  • Longer training on the fringes of the energetically deficit will benefit the formation of training overloads.

Diverse carbohydrates will be differently quick absorbed by the body. Longer Carbohydrates have to be dissociated first into Monosaccharide. The longer a carbohydrate the slower a dissociation into Monosaccharide will succeed and the slower it will be absorbed.

The body is reacting by secretion of Insulin to the absorption of most carbohydrates. This is for example in the case of Glucose, on the other hand not with Fructose.

Insulin makes sure that carbohydrates arrive from the bloodstream into the cells and the increased blood glucose level drops to the normal standard.

If carbohydrates are composed of many short-chained carbohydrates like Glucose the insulin response can be so strong due to the quick absorption of the short-chained carbohydrates that due to the insulin mediated quick absorption of Glucose into the cells a strong decrease of the blood glucose level is the consequence which can trigger hunger.

In this context it is useful to classify carbohydrates according to their glycemical index (GI)

The higher this glycemical index the quicker the carbohydrates go into the blood.

The GI 100 of Glucose is high, Bananas having a GI of 55 are in the medium range and cooked noodles having a GI of 41 are an example for a low GI.

The GI is, however, also depends on the simultaneously recorded other foods.

In addition, of course, it is also important to note how much of an appropriate food is eaten.

The so-called glycemical load takes into account the GI of the food and the amount consumed.

Athletes need carbohydrates, both at rest and during exercise. Carbohydrates, which are taken at rest, cover first the current energy needs of the body (metabolic rate at rest of e.g. muscles and brain). If carbohydrates will be taken by exceeding the current needs, they are initially stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This reservoir system is in endurance athletes by adjustments of the enzyme system most pronounced. Only when these reservoirs are full, excessive carbohydrates converted into fat.


1.2  Proteins

Proteins consist of amino acids and are, for example found in meat, fish and cereals. Human and animal proteins are composed of approximately 20 different amino acids.

Individual amino acids are important for specific functions in the body. They support e.g. branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), gluconeogenesis (Glycogen constitution) or the tissue constitution.

The protein needs of endurance athletes is about 1.2 to 1.7 grams per kilogram of body weight and per day or approximately 10 – 15% of the total daily energy needs

The protein supply of athletes is sufficiently covered with normal diets. A further supply of the normal level does not create positive effects.

Proteins provide the same amount of energy per gram as a gram of carbohydrates.

In contrast to carbohydrates proteins under normal conditions of everyday life and during the training will not be used for energy, but also fulfill other functions:

Proteins form enzymes, are important building blocks for musculature (structure and regeneration of damaged muscles) or occur in bones, ligaments and tendons.

However, when the carbohydrate reserves are depleted, proteins are used for the production of energy. Proteins are then converted into carbohydrates, they are now available to the body for the brain and for maintaining fat burning.

This conversion of carbohydrates to proteins is, however slowly, therefore it cannot be used for effective training. At rest, this transformation is an interesting option for losing weight. During the transformation resulting from 100 g protein 50 g carbohydrates, 50% of the contained heat energy is then „lost“. Another advantage is that proteins saturate well.


1.3  Fats

Fats and oils consist mainly of fatty acids. Fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated.

Unsaturated fatty acids can partly not be made by human beings themselves and therefore it has to be ingested (Essential fatty acids). Theoretically, it would suffice to include only those essential fatty acids in the diet. This would meet a few grams per day. As these essential fatty acids are not available in the nature in pure form, the actual fat consumption is higher. An athlete should include 1 to 1,5 g fat daily per 1 kg body weight. Translated, these are then about 30% of the total energy demand. Based on this it should be each 1 third saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Fat contains per gram about twice as much energy as one gram of carbohydrates or proteins. To lose weight it is therefore advisable to reduce the amount of fat and thus the total amount of energy absorbed.

Fats are metabolized in the mitochondria, the so called powerhouses of the cell. In order to get the fatty acids into the mitochondria, carnitine is necessary. Carnitine is the substance which allows the entry of fatty acids into the mitochondria. Carnitine is produced by the body and is also contained in meat. A performance-enhancing or regeneration stimulating effects by the additional supply of carnitine has not been proven beyond doubt, therefore, SQUEEZY products do not contain carnitine


1.4  Vitamins

Vitamins are vital substances that the body has to consume regularly.

Vitamins are found fat-soluble form (A,D,E,K) and water-soluble form (All others e.g. C and B vitamins).

In our part of the world the supply of vitamins ensures healthy food. It is not necessary to take vitamins during a workout, because vitamins are stored in the body. Even the smallest vitamin memory (B1) is sufficient for about 10 days! The addition of vitamin C in sports products has primarily the task of preserving the products, because vitamin C is antioxidant effective.


1.5  Minerals

Minerals are divided into the amount of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus and the trace elements iron, iodine, fluorine, zinc, selenium, copper, manganese and chromium.

Because they are present in virtually all foods in varying amounts, it is guaranteed also here in analogy to the vitamins with a supply of healthy normal diet

For the athletes particularly important are sodium and potassium, especially during the exercise. Sodium and potassium are activating the muscle contraction in a complicated interplay. Calcium and magnesium are also involved in the muscle contraction.

Cramps with athletes, especially during and after load, can have different causes. The most frequent cause are not contrary to far common opinion magnesium deficiency, but rather insufficient training, water deficiency or sodium deficiency. Especially sodium deficiency occurs always more frequently as for not athletes a low sodium nourishment is strongly propagated because of health preventive deliberations. This does not apply to athletes. For this reason also the “Apfelschorle” (Apple Spritzer) for the ambitious athlete (regular > 1 hour training duration) is not a suitable sport drink because it contains too little sodium. During intensive load, above all the athlete should pay attention to the supply of sodium and if possible also potassium.  SQUEEZY products contain sport physiological meaningful quantities of sodium and potassium. Further minerals and trace elements must not be replaced during the load


1.6  Dietary fibres

The dietary fibres occur predominantly in vegetable nourishment and consist for example of carbohydrates such as Cellulose, that the person cannot digest. Dietary fibres accelerate for example the carrier of the nourishment pulp in the stomach-intestine-section. Dietary fibres are received with well-balanced healthy nourishment sufficiently. Sensitive athletes should respect on that to eat before contests especially roughage poor, in order to avoid diarrhea.


1.7  Water

Water will be received both through drinking and over the meal. Basically, the urine should be as bright as possible.  Water can be stored in the body. So with every gram of carbohydrate stored as Glycogen in liver and muscle also 2.7 g water is stored, that is available in the body in training and contest then as cooling water. If the water reservoirs are filled sufficiently, does nothing speak at a trained athlete on the other hand, also to do sports an hour in heat conditions without further liquid intake.

Basically it must be drunk however also during the load because the body loses water by sweating permanently. The quantity may not be too slight in order to balance the fluid loss, but also not too largely, otherwise the body cannot receive the quantity and gives a „water belly“ (Abdominal dropsy) or also diarrhea.

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