SQUEEZY Ernährung und Belastung
Squeezy Nutrition and exposure

Diet before the training

The diet should be rich in carbohydrate before starting sportive load. The diet of the athlete (as well as the amateur athlete) should fulfill following five criteria:

Low-fat, rich in carbohydrate, fresh, diversified and untreated.

This is primarily a normal diet, with virtually all the necessary nutritional components are absorbed. But also supplementary Energy drinks are useful, for example carboloading products.

Before intensive training loads or contest loads, the carbohydrate reservoirs in muscles and liver should be filled well. This will be achieved by reducing the training when consuming food rich in carbohydrates. In order to fill the carbohydrate reservoirs maximally, it is necessary to receive for about 3 days 7-10 g carbohydrates per kg bodyweight and per day.

This carboloading procedure should be practiced absolutely during the training before it will be applied prior to an important competition.

By filling of the carbohydrate reservoirs the body weight will increase up to 3 kg, because with every gram of carbohydrates also 2,7 g water will be added. This means not gaining. The body stores also water with carbohydrates, the increase in weight is simply a result of the carbohydrates (approx. 500-600 g) and the water (approx. 2,5 kg), no fat is formed.

The water is then important for the cooling during the load. After the training or competition the carbohydrates and the water are consequently 3 kg are completely removed.

Diet directly prior to competition

In the evening before the competition and in the morning before the start there should be no eating huge portions. The meals should be rich in carbohydrates and in case of sensitive stomach low fibre. In addition it should be drunk sufficiently – the urine must be clear in the evening before the contest. This is independent of the duration of the contest. Already smallest fluid deficits affect strongly negatively the efficiency.

The last larger meal should be approx.  3 to 4 hours before the start and should include approx. 200 – 300 g carbohydrates

About 1 hour before the start a further supply of carbohydrate up to 60-80 g would be reasonable. The amount and volume are strongly depending on the individual compatibility and kind of sport and duration. So it can certainly be eaten more and temporally more tight before starting an Ironman or a longer bicycle racing than before a 5 km course.

Therefore: Prior to an important contest it should be trained the kind and amount of meals by doing a test competition or a corresponding training unit, in order to realize in time individual intolerances.

Attention: Larger amounts of magnesium before the start is not wise, this can be abstergent.

Diet during training or competition

In short contests up to a duration of an hour (e.g. 10 km courses) an intake of nourishment or drinks is not necessary. Body’s own reservoirs are sufficient.. An exception may be the extreme heat or high humidity, the intake of fluid can sometimes be useful. Because of the high load in short contests the fluid intake is not that simple (To choke something) and should be practiced during the exercise.

During longer contests (an also training periods) above all the supply of fluid and carbohydrates hast o be respected. Furthermore Sodium and Potassium are reasonable in order to absorb food faster and to support the musculature. Magnesium should not be used or only in small amounts during the load.

It should be explicitly emphasized once again, that carbohydrates are absolutely necessary during the load, Because contrary to far common opinion a fat burning is possible due to biochemical reasons only in presence of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates, which are absorbed during load, should mostly exist of medium-to long-chain carbohydrates such as maltodextrin or also carbohydrates with low glycemical index such as isomaltulose, in order to ensure steady and long-term supply of carbohydrate without excessive insulin response.

Basically carbohydrate containing drinks, bars, gels, banana and sports fruit gum are available as energy sources. Most important criterion: The athlete must like and endure the product – both should be practiced again during the training. In drinks it has to be respected that that the carbohydrate concentration for an optimal intake should be between 40 and 80 grams per liter (4 – 8%). As comparison:  Cola and corresponding drinks as well as juices contain approx.  100 – 120 g carbohydrates per liter. The sodium concentration of the sport drink should be between 400 and 1000 mg per liter, and it should contain between 120 and 225 mg potassium per liter.

The reason for the importance of the ratio of carbohydrates to water which will be absorbed during the load is the mechanism of the food intake. At first 2 definitions to be explained:

Osmolarity designates the amount of the solved particles per liter fluid, Osmolality the amount of the solved particles per kilogram fluid. In the sport practice, to simplify matters both definitions can be equated because a liter of sport drink has a weight of about one kilogram.

Example: A solution of 100 ml water with 10 g monosaccharide (e.g.) Glucose) has the same Osmolarity as with 20 g disaccharide (e.g. granulated sugar)

The Osmolarity of the nourishment pulp in the stomach-intestine-section is now decisively for the speed of the nourishment intake. In case a sports drink has a minor Osmolarity than blood, one talks about a hypotonic drink. In case the Osmolarity of sports drink and blood is identical, the drink is called isotonic, in case the Osmolarity of the drink is higher as of the blood, one talks about a hypertonic drink. Ideal are hypotonic and isotonic drinks, as these will be absorbed from the body on the fastest way. Hypertonic drinks will be first diluted with water from the body until they are isotonic. In this case, water is withdrawn out of the body, which will decrease power under load, moreover the intake will only be delayed. Therefore a sports drink should be hypotonic or isotonic. How it will be achieved? SQUEEZY sports drinks.

Sports drinks use less short-chain and a lot of medium to long-chain carbohydrates. Thus the necessary carbohydrate quantity is reached with a slight amount of solved particles. Thereby the required amount of carbohydrate will be achieved by a minor number of solved particles. Additionally it contains only the essential ingredients such as sodium and potassium. Thus the drinks have a slight Osmolarity and are well stomach compatible.

Due to this reason with bars, gels etc. it should be noted, it should be mandatory to drink always water additionally, to have the optimal concentration during intake of the nourishment pulp (Which also stated on SQUEEZY gels)

The necessary drink quantity needed varies depending on the weather and should not exceed normally about 0.75 to 1.0 liters per hour, otherwise the gastric emptying rate is exceeded. Since the fluid needs at hot conditions is partly higher, in the run-up of the load in the frame of a carboloading the fluid reservoir should be well-stocked.

According to present study situation caffeine has a performance enhancing effect, although not all athletes do response to. At the present stage of the research about one hour prior to the load it should be consumed approx. 3-7 mg per kg bodyweight (Corresponds to around 2 cups of coffee) and during the load around 1 -2 mg per kg bodyweight per hour (Corresponding to 75 – 150 g SQUEEZY ENERGY SUPER GEL). Since caffeine has also diuretic effect with sensitive persons it should be also practiced during the exercises.

Recently there are indications, that the damage of the musculature is less due to a minor supply of protein during the load.

Diet upon training and competition

Directly after training or contest, the function of the immune system is restricted. The more intensive the load was it counts all the more. Thus the body is more susceptible to infections within the hours upon the load. The period of the increased infection susceptibility is known as open window, the total effect is known as Open Window Effect.

A contemporary carbohydrate intake after the training reduces this effect and thus the susceptibility infection significantly. Simultaneously, the carbohydrate reservoir of the body will be replenished and reduces the recovery time. The replenishment of the glycogen reservoir will happen the more effective the faster supply of carbohydrate will start after the load, ideally in minutes.

The utilization of recovery products is ideal after the training which will influence the replenishment of the carbohydrate reservoir, the reduction of the Open Window Effect and the recovery of damaged musculature positively due to the availability of carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals/ trace elements.

To avoid the Open Window-Effect it is partly recommended also L-Glutamine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) but it still needs further research until an ultimate clarification.

Basically the same diet principles will be applied as before the training. The nourishment should be less fat, rich in carbohydrates, fresh, diversified and untreated. Proteins can support the recovery after intensive load.

The experienced athletes listen to his body: Thirst indicates water shortage or dehydration, hunger, the need for carbohydrates and appetite for something hearty, the demand for minerals, especially sodium and potassium.

Diet at specific conditions

The outside conditions influence the need for the single building blocks of the nourishment considerably. Example: The warmer it is, the more water is required the cooler is it, the fewer.

During the heat periods sports drinks should be mixed rather less concentrated (4% = 4 g carbohydrates per 100 ml), due to more drinking enough carbohydrates will be absorbed. In case it gets hot, the drinks can also be chilled, the compatibleness should be practiced during the training.

The increased demand of minerals due to strong sweating should be prepared respectively balanced by corresponding foodstuff, primary before and after the load, during the load it is possible only restricted. Hint: Pretzel sticks at days prior to thermal load. The benefits: Pretzel sticks supply carbohydrates (And are non-fat in practice) as well as the mineral sodium and due to osmotically reasons they are still responsible for a better water storage (Which will be increasingly taken because of thirst).

When it is cold sports drinks should be rather mixed higher concentrated 8% = 8 g carbohydrates per 100 ml) in order to absorb enough carbohydrates even when having reduced drinking volume. If it is very cold drinks can be also wamed-up.

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